The Dallas Institute’s
BEYOND MEASURE PDF for November 11!
A NEW COWAN CENTER™ COURSE IN 2017-2018
BEYOND MEASURE: THE COWAN PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
In this new course, we will trace aspects of the tradition of liberal education and explore the distinctive features of the “spirit of liberal learning” that Drs. Louise and Donald Cowan conceived and espoused, concepts and practices that have been transforming primary and secondary educators in the Dallas Institute’s Cowan Center™ programs since 1984.
What makes the Cowans’ understanding of liberal learning unique is their insistence on the importance of cultivating the “poetic imagination,” which physicist Donald Cowan describes as the “active, creative agent of culture.”
Building on the poetic immersion of the July Sue Rose Summer Institutes and Arête Institutes, primary and secondary educators will be guided through the Cowans’ unique vision: the traditions that ground it and their understanding of what an educated person should be and do in the world.
This first class will be conducted in a two-year period of five Saturday morning sessions taught every other month: September 9, November 11, January 13, March 10, and May 12.
Although not a formal graduate class, this course will include quizzes and writing assignments that will be marked by the professors.
SPECIAL TUTION FOR THE 2017-2018 Cowan Philosophy CLASS!
The first half of the course (that which is being piloted in five classes in 2017-2018), is being offered to Summer Institute and Arête Institute alumni for the special rate of $300.00, less than one-third the regular fee that will go into effect in 2018-2019 for the second half of the class and the full classes following.
Primary and secondary teachers or administrators who have attended at least one July Summer Institute or one year of the Arête Institute program are eligible to attend the class. Those who have not attended at least one July Summer Institute or one year of the Arête Institute program are not eligible to attend.
SEPTEMBER 9—The Assignment for the first class
From Unbinding Prometheus: Education for the Coming Age, the “Preface,” “Introduction: Between Two Ages,” pages 104-105
You may purchase an Unbinding Prometheus book from the Dallas Institute, but you may also click here to download the readings from Unbinding Prometheus for the first class.
September 9, November 11, January 13, March 10, and May 12.
Click here for the reading packet for the first class, available to download from the Cowan Center™ page on the Dallas Institute website.
ON COWAN CENTER™ CERTIFICATION
Because teachers and administrators should be the chief learners—the first students—in the educational system, every certification offered by the Cowan Center™ for primary and secondary educators will be designed to awaken a sense of liberal learning and deepen professional knowledge as well as develop reading, thinking, writing, and speaking skills.
The “Beyond Measure: the Cowan Philosophy of Education” class enables primary and secondary teachers and administrators who have completed both July Sue Rose Summer Institutes to earn the first rank of Cowan Center™ certification, that of Cowan Teacher™.
COWAN TEACHER™ Certification
Cowan Teacher™ is the foundational rank of certification for teachers and administrators to help reassert the primacy of the teacher as the essential mode of every educator.
Additional Cowan Center™ certifications for teachers and administrators are designed to cultivate the sensibilities and skills in both teaching and leading, but the “spirit of liberal learning” that the Cowans championed for both teachers and administrators begins with the heart and mind of the teacher.
Programmatic Requirements for COWAN TEACHER™ Certification:
• Successful completion of two of the Cowan Center™ Sue Rose Summer Institute for Teachers: The Epic Tradition and Tragedy and Comedy
• Successful completion of the NEW course, Beyond Measure: the Cowan Philosophy of Education
COWAN ACADEMY® Certification
The Cowan Academy® is a nationally trademarked educational model from the Dallas Institute’s Cowan Center™ based on the philosophy of liberal learning for all conceived of and practiced by Drs. Louise and Donald Cowan.
A Cowan Academy® is a department or departments, or an entire school in which the teachers and the evaluating administrators each hold a Cowan Teacher™ certification.
Contact Dr. Claudia MacMillan (formerly Allums) at email@example.com for further details about certification through the Cowan Center™.
The Vision of the Dallas Institute’s Cowan Center for Education™ is to help transform public education so that every Pre-K—12 child in America has the opportunity to receive a high quality liberal education, an education that is designed for a free person, one who is liberated to make choices and to self-govern.
The Mission of the Dallas Institute’s Cowan Center for Education™ is to provide events, classes, and certification programs for Pre-K–12 teachers and administrators designed to reawaken and sustain a sense of the human purposes of education and thereby foster the rigor and joy of the spirit of liberal learning.
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Items useful for reminding you each and every day of the value of the spirit of liberal learning.
Comments from Participants at the 2017 Education Forum
I attended the Education Forum last weekend on both Friday and Saturday. It was so inspiring. I am so thankful for all you at the Institute do for teachers. I am renewed at each event. I learned so much from the discussion on Friday. It really put a human face on those in the upper echelons who make the decisions that govern our professional lives. The theme of a liberal education is one that prompts us as public school teachers to look beyond the drill, drill, test of our existence and claim the real meaning of a free education, one that frees us.
Janet McDonald Fuller (science)
I had a wonderful time and hung on every word spoken! I only attended the Saturday portion (but wish I had been able to attend Friday evening as well). Each of them, the philosopher, historian, and literature professor, presented such great cases for the salience of their content area to the education of our citizens for the preservation of our society. I felt both inspired and then a bit depressed after hearing them, as I see with joyful agreement that they are right–we need to grow up and examine life and cease assigning identities; we need to convey facts and chronology through story-telling to teach empathy; we need classics to convey a universal human truth without propagandizing. (I’ve just got to read The Brothers Karamazov now!) The deflation came with the immediate realization that we are doing it so wrong by making scores the absolute indicator of a student’s success. I felt hopeful when I saw the DISD principals in the audience! (Mrs. Broughton is a parent of two of my fabulous students.)
Staci Cianciulli (art)
As always, a refreshing blast of thoughtful discussion, on topics I care about! All the speakers I heard, and during the math activities, had a grace and expansiveness that exemplifies for me the beauty and joy of liberal learning. Yes, the Forum did help me recognize that spirit, and rekindle it. It was encouraging, too, to hear superintendents’ views of our current educational climate. We will prevail. Evil endures, but good prevails.
Elena Stephens (elementary science/math)
This program is valuable and should be continued into the future. It’s a welcome breath of fresh air to be able to think, dialogue, and share about education in an environment that truly appreciates the educational endeavor.
Dr. Carol François (former Dallas ISD Chief of Staff)
The 2017 Education Forum was inspiring and left me with much to ponder. The form to which each discipline’s “matter” lends itself is important to remember when mapping and recognizing authenticity. The contemplative play that is necessary for making meaning actually is also key in developing a perspective and a narrative that seems absent in the learning in most classrooms today. With no time given to the standards that guide teaching and learning in most classrooms, participants of the Education Forum were able to explore the fundamentals of learning for a free people, and how this liberal learning brings disciplines together. It became clear to me that the standards that make up a discipline can best be taught and learned when an understanding and execution of liberal learning becomes the modus operandi in all classrooms.
Onyema Nweze (assistant principal)
The Louise and Donald Cowan School of Liberal Arts and Sciences®
The Louise and Donald Cowan Academy®
What do we want for our children? We say that we want them “college and career ready,” but don’t we really want more? Don’t we also want them, after their Pre-K—12 education, not only to be equipped for the next stage of their lives—whatever that may be—but also to have laid the foundations of wisdom for life?
The Cowan Philosophy of Education
To lay the foundations of wisdom for life requires a certain kind of knowing, a knowing that comes from an education that teaches more than facts and skills. At the basis of the Cowan School® and Cowan Academy® educational models is a vision, the vision of Drs. Louise and Donald Cowan. The Cowans’ distinctive understanding of liberal education was conceived while serving at the University of Dallas beginning in the 1950s. In 1980, they and four colleagues founded the Dallas Institute of Humanities and Culture, and they began to focus on a vision of liberal education for primary and secondary schooling.
On Liberal Education
First, a word about liberal education. The word “liberal” gives many people pause, but the word in this context is not a political designation, like “Liberal” and “Conservative.” Rather, the concept of liberal education in the West reaches back to the 5th century B.C. to describe the education that was provided the democratic citizens of Athens, as opposed to the merely vocational training provided the servant class. The word itself comes from the Latin word liber (the root of our word “liberty”) which simply means “free one.” In other words, a liberal education is an education suited for a free person.
A too narrow understanding of the word “liberal” is compounded by the phrase’s association with another currently underappreciated tradition, that of the “liberal arts.” The liberal arts are an important part of a liberal education but they are traditionally thought of in relation to specific academic subjects, particularly the humanities but not exclusive to the humanities. In this age in which people seem to consider the purpose of education, particularly public schooling, to be to train workers to keep the country competitive in a global economy, the liberal arts, and liberal education, in general, are mistakenly considered frivolous because neither has as its primary purpose an immediate, practical end.
But Americans have always wrestled with the purpose of public schooling and so have waffled between these two poles. In Left Back: A Century of Battles Over School Reform, Diane Ravitch traces how the earliest debates about public schooling in the mid-nineteenth century centered on the tension between the more sophisticated model of liberal education, or an “academic curriculum,” and the vocational, or manual labor model of education inspired at that time by the second industrial revolution.
The Cowans’ Contributions to Liberal Education
The Cowans’ philosophy of education—public or private—is aligned with the tradition of liberal education. The “action of learning,” Donald Cowan explains, is “not knowledge of the artifact—the printed text or the reproduction,” like the end of technical or skills based training. More than mere familiarity with facts and skills, it is “transformation” that is ultimately the evidence of “liberal learning.”
And liberal education as the Cowans understand it is an education delivered in a “spirit of liberal learning,” an attitude that eschews mere practicality as its end, although the knowledge of certain facts and skills is important to the basic understanding of any subject matter. But if the goal of education is to help us “make our way to a recognition of the high, the noble, the magnanimous,” it must be more than mere information that we seek.
The “Poetic Imagination”
A distinctive feature of the Cowans’ philosophy of liberal education is their insistence on the importance of what they call the “poetic imagination.” This is not merely a byproduct of Louise Cowan’s being a literature professor. Donald Cowan was a distinguished physics professor. However, they both considered the “poetic imagination” to be fundamental, the “active creative agent of culture” that “transforms raw materials by raising them to a higher, more knowable state.” Cultivated primarily through the study of great literature, the “poetic way is not goal-oriented, not efficient. Instead, like a dance, like a melody, like lovemaking, every stage along the way requires attention and evokes delight. Poetry gather, condenses, images, refers, implies, and remembers. By its ability to symbolize something beyond the present scene, it can call into being and make real an entire invisible cosmos. By its capacity for empathy it educates feeling, fantasy, and dream, as well as imagination and intellect. It brings together all the parts of an experience and, placing them in proper sequence, raises the entire configuration to a new order of meaning.”
It is here, in their theory of “poetry” and language that the Cowans move beyond a traditional conception of liberal education. Liberal education in the modern sense has always included the study of great literary works, but the Cowans insist that “poetry”—from poiesis, meaning “making”—provides access to the highest mode of knowing.
In the liberal education tradition, philosophy typically enjoys the status of the most sophisticated discipline. But given to a kind of distillation as its mode of knowing, philosophy does not foster the breadth or imaginative elasticity that the Cowans ascribe to poetry, a capacity that is necessary to apprehend and understand the vagaries of human existence in all of its contradictory moments. “Poetry,” or any imaginative writing, makes its meaning through symbols and analogy, something standing for something else. It is therefore an intricate mode of understanding and more intricate, in some ways, than the purely rational way of knowing whose goal is to distill a thing to its essential truth.
Not only is the symbolic and analogical understanding provided by poetry a more multifaceted way of knowing; the form of poetry itself helps foster an even deeper capacity for understanding than even symbol allows. According to the Cowans, the proper study of the complex poetic form that binds together the disparate fragments of a great work of literary art helps cultivate in a student’s heart and mind a sensitivity for discerning subtle patterns and “coherences”9 in life, too.
Far from being an escape from reality then, for the Cowans, properly studying great literature is the way in which one deepens one’s aptitude for language as well as the way by which one cultivates a capacity for better understanding the multidimensional features of the real world in both its visible and invisible manifestations.
The Cowans’ philosophy of liberal education is further refined through Donald Cowan’s theory of the “three moments of learning” and Louise Cowan’s literary genre theory.
The “Three Moments of Learning”
Donald Cowan explains the complete action of learning as occurring in three moments—“grasping,” which he defines as the “innocent acceptance of, the dwelling with, an experience, its reality taken into the mind as a whole…before rationality sets in, before analysis has torn it apart”; “mapping,” which is the “structuring” stage of learning, a “device for presenting experience to the mind in a manner the mind can handle”; and “making,” the moment in which learning causes a “metamorphosis of the person,” transforming him or her “into something different” from what he or she was before. The “bulk of education is devoted to the middle term, structuring and systematizing,” he explains, even though the first and third terms, “apprehending and creating, are far more important to the complete action of learning.” The Cowan philosophy of teaching and learning helps educators understand the importance of the “grasping” and “making.” But because Donald Cowan insists on the distinctive “mappings” proper to each discipline, his “three moments of learning” theory also helps educators overcome another misguided notion of current “best practices” that seeks both to standardize methods of teaching across disciplines and also to measure achievement across disciplines using only one kind of metric.
A Literary Genre Theory
Louise Cowan is one of only two literary scholars since Aristotle who has conceived of a comprehensive literary genre theory. She is the last of the literary critics from the Southern agrarians who transformed arts and letters around the world in the early and mid-twentieth century. Her theory is based on Aristotle’s notion of the four poetic “kinds”—epic, tragedy, comedy, and dithyramb, or lyric, as we call it. Genres “express the basic gestures—the actions—of the soul”; they are not exterior, structural features of a poetic work. Rather, they are the “internal forms, perspectives upon life that indicate the kind of response called for by a particular work. Not to know their nature is like being deaf to the tone of voice in which a comment is spoken and blind to the face and gesture that express it.”
We have been “deaf” to the “tone of voice” of literary works for some time now. The revolutions of the 1960s, which included the introduction of deconstruction, swept through college and university campuses, and in that movement the subjects of history and literature were most adversely affected. They became politicized and ultimately lost their authority as modes of knowledge. To gain access to the wisdom of great literary works, one must approach them in the proper manner, using the proper “mapping” to discern their action.
Since 1984 in programs in the Dallas Institute’s Cowan Center for Education, Louise Cowan’s literary genre theory has shown educators the mapping appropriate to literary works and has thereby reinvested literature with its power to transform the human heart and mind.
So it is in the convergence of these traditional and innovative theories that the Cowans’ philosophy of liberal education has transformed thousands of educators and millions of students and provides the undergirding for the Cowan School® and Cowan Academy models®.
Why a Liberal Education?
Currently, the kind of education described above is found almost exclusively only in the best private schools. In our public schools, especially, and in our urban public schools in particular, there is a certain poverty of spirit that pervades the administration of the system. It is not a lack of spirit on the part of the students or the teachers or the administrators, when they can help it. Rather, it seems to be a general insufficiency of vision—a lack of understanding for the full range of human development and possibilities—that has governed the decisions of those in control of American public school education increasingly in these last decades.
Much is currently being made of the need to be practical in education, to teach “21st-century skills.” But these skills—typically identified as collaboration, digital literacy, critical thinking, and problem-solving—with the exception of “digital literacy,” are not exclusive to or even achievable by, in truth, a merely utilitarian or technical education. One needs content worthy of collaboration, critical thinking, and problem-solving. Without content, collaborations and discussions are merely physical or social activities. A focus on and a belief in the need for rigorous, substantive content is what distinguishes the best private schools. Guided by skilled and well-educated teaches, meaningful collaborations, critical thinking, and problem-solving come naturally in such a content-rich environment.
What if a high quality education such as this were available to all school children, even to every public school child? What if a liberal education were made available to every public school child? Until the 1960s, a liberal education was available in better American public schools, although it has never truly been available to all school children in America. But that can change.
The Cowan Academy® and Cowan School® models are based on the belief that every child, especially in a democracy, can and should receive a liberal education. A liberal education is an education whose purpose is informed by a belief in meaning and truth, although often difficult to discern, and that truth and meaning can be better understood with a mind and heart cultivated with that end in mind. A whole person is the goal of liberal education, not merely a person as an economic indicator, the unfortunate outcome of an education focused on technical or practical applications alone.
According to a 1998 definition by the Association of Colleges and Universities, liberal education is the kind of education that prepares children “to live responsible, productive, and creative lives in a dramatically changing world. It is an education that fosters a well-grounded intellectual resilience, a disposition toward lifelong learning, and an acceptance of responsibility for the ethical consequences of our ideas and actions. Liberal education requires that we understand the foundations of knowledge and inquiry about nature, culture and society; that we master core skills of perception, analysis, and expression; that we cultivate a respect for truth; that we recognize the importance of historical and cultural context; and that we explore connections among formal learning, citizenship, and service to our communities.”
This sounds like the education for which we long when we talk about a ”well-rounded education,” the kind of education that parents often want for their children but also the kind of education that is crucial for a citizenry capable of living in and improving their own democracy.
Mortimer Adler, a mid-twentieth century proponent of liberal education and colleague of the Cowans explains that liberal education “seeks to develop free human beings who know how to use their minds and are able to think for themselves. Its primary aim is not the development of professional competence, although a liberal education is indispensable for any intellectual profession. It produces citizens who can exercise their political liberty responsibly. It develops cultivated persons who can use their leisure fruitfully. It is an education for all free people.” Contrary to a liberal education, according to Adler, a specialized education does not produce “free people” but rather “hordes of uncultivated, trained technicians.”
If our purpose is to create consumers or worker drones, we should continue and even increase our current emphasis on educating children only in individualized modes using specialized, skills-based curricula. In these modes, we can accurately “measure” our progress with standardized tests and we will ultimately be “successful” in achieving the goals set by the system. However, we should consider carefully the reality that in this mode a poverty of spirit will continue and even increase. Educating in this fashion will produce Adler’s “hordes of uncultivated, trained technicians,” what José Ortega y Gasset had also called “mass man.”
If, on the other hand, our purpose is to nurture unique individuals and citizens and to foster the nobler aspects of human nature, we need to give our children—all of our children—the opportunities provided by the breadth and depth of a liberal education.
A Paradigm for Universal Liberal Education
Based on the Cowan philosophy of education, a Louise and Donald Cowan School of Liberal Arts and Sciences® and a Louise and Donald Cowan Academy® are paradigms for liberal education in the public schools, educational models that highlight the quality and rigor of instruction in all subjects while they foster the human qualities necessary for one to thrive as an individual throughout life, including as a true member of society.
Both the Cowan School® and the Cowan Academy®–like all of the Dallas Institute’s Cowan Center for Education programs—are shaped by the ideals from several intellectual traditions of liberal education.
From the ancients, the Cowan School® and Cowan Academy® embrace the tenets of liberal learning that the Greeks called “PAIDEIA (py-dee-a) from the Greek pais, paidos: the upbringing of a child. (Related to pedagogy and pediatrics.) In an extended sense, the equivalent of the Latin humanitas (from which ‘the humanities’), signifying the general learning that should be the possession of all human beings.” Because learning “should be the possession of all human beings,” we affirm Robert Maynard Hutchins’ belief that the “best education for the best is the best education for all.”
The second intellectual tradition that gives form to the Cowan Center philosophy of liberal learning comes from more contemporary minds although it, too, is rooted in an ancient sensibility. This is what was described earlier as Louise and Donald Cowan’s understanding of the “poetic imagination.”
Since 1984 in Cowan Center programs, school teachers and administrators from all disciplines and grade levels have responded with joy to the poetic imagination. It is the joy of recognition, an awakening of an inner tutor that affirms the high, noble features of teaching and learning that educators know to be true but that they are too often forced to disregard in our day for utility’s sake.
The Cowan Center’s philosophy of liberal education is not an agenda or a list of terms or standardized teaching methods. It is a spirit that awakens excellence and professional authority, and it generates an educational force as varied as both the individuals who comprise it and those who will be in their care. And since it is an attitude, one that affirms what educators know to be the highest purposes of an education, for decades now, Cowan Center alumni have applied it in their classrooms and schools. Every child could receive a high quality education if our teachers and leaders were encouraged to remember who they are.
Louise and Donald Cowan Academy®
A Cowan Academy® can be presented in a school at any level of primary or secondary education. It seeks to foster in students the desire to learn as well as to build their capacity to learn on their own while providing them with the foundations of content knowledge in core disciplines.
In a Cowan Academy® comprised of humanities departments—beginning with English and social studies departments—this includes promoting love and empathy for the human situation that motivates students to learn more about others’ experiences of life. The methods, too, that are appropriate to studying and learning the humanities foster humane sensibilities and the proper discretion, what Nicholas Carr has called the “nobler instincts,” and cultivate three major abilities in students: the ability to take in information from verbal instruction and from the written word; the ability to transform information into understanding through contemplation leading to ordering one’s thought and drawing sound conclusions; and the ability to communicate in the written word and in speech.
The humanities, properly taught, require intensive, communal dialogue between human beings, and the relationship between students and teachers in a humanities-based Cowan Academy® is forged by mutual respect as teachers and students become co-learners dedicated to seeking wisdom together.
Louise and Donald Cowan School of Liberal Arts and Sciences®
A Cowan School® is different from a Cowan Academy® model in that a Cowan School® is a campus staffed entirely by Cowan Teachers® in every classroom and in every academic administrative office.
The Professional Features:
A Cowan School® will foster a unique community of learners—of students, teachers, administrators, parents, and citizens—all invested in the best of a liberal education for all.
Every teacher and administrator will be an alumnus of the Cowan Center’s Sue Rose Summer Institutes for Teachers, the Dallas Institute’s nationally recognized program that has been transforming teachers and administrators since 1984. Every teacher in the English and history departments will be a veteran with at least ten years teaching experience. In the other subjects, teachers will also be highly experienced. Administrators will rise from the ranks of the classroom for their excellence and experience in teaching and for their gifts of leadership in both vision and skill. Within four years of hiring, teachers and administrators will each hold a specially designed Master of Humanities degree.
The curriculum will meet state standards and will be shaped by the school’s teachers and administrators, experts in content knowledge and teaching, which give them wisdom in the methods and pedagogies appropriate to the teaching of their various disciplines.
The Benefits to Students:
The rigor and liveliness of the learning experience at a Cowan School® will help develop in students the capacity for deep understanding, empathy, and an appropriate sense of responsibility for the human community. Experienced, masterful teachers will provide adult models of “lifelong learning,” inspiring students to love learning so that they can develop the capacity to learn and grow throughout their own lives. Through rigorous, carefully guided courses of study, students will develop a highly nuanced sense of Form, Justice, and Beauty that will lay the foundations for wisdom: for college, for the workplace, and for life. In addition to the rigorous liberal arts curricula in academic subjects, this will be achieved by study and practice in physical education, in the fine arts and music, and in “shop class,” where students will learn the practical arts and crafts while working with natural elements such as wood, metal, and clay.
Graduates of a Cowan School® will be prepared to read, to think, to write, to speak, and to act with the grace and authority befitting young men and women who live as full citizens in a diverse community, nation, and world.
View our latest Cowan Center Newsletter — Volume IV, Issue II
One of the Dallas Institute of Humanities and Culture’s most enduring programs, the Teachers Academy was established in 1984 with a summer literature program for Dallas area high school teachers with a focus on recovering a sense of “Literature as a Mode of Knowledge.” The Teachers Academy includes The Sue Rose Summer Institute as well as Communitas and Foundations.
We spend a lot of time discussing the challenges in education, and rightly so. We must always be seeking ways to improve. But we must also remember that in order to improve, from time to time we need to refresh our imaginations about what education could be.
The Teachers Alumni Advisory Board is a group of dedicated veteran teachers who are alumni of the Sue Rose Summer Institutes for Teachers. This Board serves as the Cowan Center director’s “eyes and ears” in local classrooms and schools, keeping Dr. Claudia Allums abreast of the trends and practices in education and advising her so that Teachers Academy programming will enrich teacher intellectually and inspire them to withstand the challenges of serving in such a demanding profession.
Through a lecture, seminars, journals, discussions and a film, this learning retreat is designed to provide education leaders with an opportunity to think deeply about—and to reimagine, in human terms—the challenges and the art of shepherding disparate voices toward common ground. The Superintendents Symposium is provided by the Dallas Institute free of charge and includes dinner on Thursday, breakfast, lunch, snacks, books and materials and instruction.
The Cowan Center Council members are ambassadors for the Dallas Institute’s Louise and Donald Cowan Center for Education. The Council is comprised of two parts: civic leaders who are dedicated to sharing the Cowan Center vision with those in their realms of influence and educators whose expertise and counsel influence and enlarge the work of the Cowan Center.
“Foundations” are new series of classes conducted by the Dallas Institute’s Cowan Center for Education to revive in the hearts and minds of those who teach and lead the spirit of liberal learning that is being lost through the increasingly technologized, standardized educational trends of our day.
In education today, we talk about what to teach and how to teach, but rarely do we talk about what a teacher is. As a matter of fact, all of the emphasis on the “what” and the latest “how” seems to have conjured an idea of a “teacher” that is relatively unimportant, one of the tools of education, if she is able to follow the manual.
Items useful for reminding you each and every day of the valuable spirit of liberal learning.